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“Innovation is a basic strategic resource of the economic development”, an article by Alexander Shumilin, Ekonomitcheskiye Strategiyi, no.2/2017

4/20/17 3:41 PM / Views:1443

Innovation is a basic strategic resource of the economic development

The tendencies of the world economy development testify the growing influence of science on the rates of the economic growth. The modern science is a real national resource, which, with the effective state support, contributes to the rapid growth of the economy, strengthening of the country's sovereignty and security.

According to Alexander Lukashenko, President of the Republic of Belarus, ‘... those countries that generate new knowledge have an advantage in the commercial use of these ideas in the export of high-tech products that bring billions in profits. Moreover, those who are the first to spread technologies, occupy the leading positions in the world.’

Today, Belarusian science plays a key role in the building of the knowledge economy, implementing the strategy of the innovative development based on the introduction of the best results of the scientific research and the development in the real sector of the economy, corresponding to higher technological structures.

UDK 338.2 (476)

To solve the most significant problems of scientific, technical and innovative development of the Republic of Belarus, the President approves the priority areas of the scientific and technical activity. It is determined that in 2016-2020 energy and energy efficiency, nuclear energy; agro-industrial technologies and production; industrial and construction technologies and production; medicine, pharmacy and the medical technologies; chemical technologies, petrochemistry; bioindustry and nanoindustry; information and communication and aerospace technologies; rational nature management and deep processing of natural resources; national security and defense and protection from emergencies will be the priority areas of scientific-technical activity. The national programs of different levels are formed, and the partial funding of these programs is provided from the national budget based on these priorities.

Keywords

The rates of economic growth, the Belarusian science, the scientific and technological progress and the innovative development.

The scientists have always played an important role in the fundamental periods of the country's formation. For example, the opening of the Pripyat oil basin, the deposits of potassium and sodium salts and the mineral waters was the basis for the creation of a mineral resource base for the development of energy and chemical industries.

Based on the establishment of the peculiarities of the location of peat deposits, brown coals and combustible shales with unique physicochemical properties, a new area of their use as important types of local fuel raw materials has been formed in the Republic.

The complex studies of problems of thermal physics, heat and mass transfer and heat power engineering have become the basis for creating highly efficient energy-saving technologies and equipment.

To ensure the competitiveness of cars, tractors and other equipment of the largest machine-building complex in the country, the work was carried out in the field of the machine reliability and the physics of nondestructive testing. A significant contribution to the development of domestic engineering industry was the work on the theory and technology of foundry.

The implementation of the research in the space subject area led to the successful launch of the first Belarusian satellite and the creation of the space system of the remote Earth sensing. Today it also led to the launch of the communication satellite and the creation of the own satellite communication.

The appearance of bioorganic chemistry, a new area in the Belarusian science, ensured the organization of the production of original medicine and diagnostic sets for the microanalysis, and modern means for the protection and stimulators of the growth of plants.

Agrarian science provides for the development of the strategy and mechanisms of the development of an agriculture complex, the creation of efficient technologies of agriculture production, high quality breeds and hybrid plants, breeds of agriculture animals, etc.

The President of the Republic approves the priority areas of activity to solve the most important tasks of the scientific-technical development of the Republic. It is determined that energy, energy efficiency and atomic energy; agriculture technologies and production; industrial and construction technology and production; medicine, pharmacy and medical engineering; chemical technologies and petrochemistry; bioindustry and nanoindustry; information and communication and aerospace technologies; rational nature management and deep processing of nature resources; national security and defense and emergency protection will be the priority areas for 2016-2020.

National programs of different levels are formed, and these programs are partially funded from the national budget on the basis of these priorities. The programs are formed in such a way as to cover the whole innovation cycle from the origin of the idea to the embodiment of it into a specific product or service that is claimed by the economy.

The state scientific and technical programs (SSTP) are being developed in the country. Branch scientific and technical programs (BSTP) are developed for solving a single scientific and technical problem of social and economic development of the industry. Regional scientific and technical programs (RSTP) are developed to solve the most significant scientific and technical problems of socioeconomic development of administrative-territorial units (regions). Scientific and technical programs are completing with the creation of a new or improved technology, new types of products or services, innovations, as well as the introduction of developed innovations in production and the release of new products.

The tasks for the holding of research and development works are also carried out in the sections of scientific provision of state programs (SPs).

Significant results have been achieved within scientific and technical programs over the past five years. So, in the comparison with the previous five-year period the output increased more than twofold, up to 10.7 billion USD. The quantity of mastered innovations has also considerably increased. If in 2006-2010 almost 8 thousand innovations were mastered, then almost 9,5 thousand innovations were mastered in 2011-2015.

The coefficient of efficiency increased from 19 to 48, that is more than 2.5 times. Thus, for each ruble of budgetary funds, 48 rubles were received from the sale of products produced according to the results of scientific and technical programs.

186 enterprises were created at the operating enterprises with the use of new technologies developed according to the programs and modernized on the basis of introduction of advanced (new and high) technologies of 274 operating manufactures in the period from 2011 to 2015.

857 patents for inventions were received, more than 1,000 applications for patenting inventions were filed.

We can give examples of the best Belarusian developments corresponding to the world level.

The following engineering is developed and produced within the framework of the SSTP "Machine Building and Machine-Building Technologies" (the state customer is the Ministry of Industry and Trade):

- a wheeled tractor "Belarus-3522" of the traction class 6 with a capacity of 340-380 horsepower to implement the energy-intensive work in agriculture, industry, construction and other industries;

- a dump truck with a carrying capacity of 180 tons with an electromechanical transmission and a mileage of at least 1,000,000 km. The dump truck corresponds to the level of the best foreign analogues, at the same time has a smaller height, width, turning radius, increased specific power, its price is 1.5-1.8 times lower compared to competitors.

The following inventions have been developed and implemented within the framework of the SSTP "Resource Saving, New Materials and Technologies  2015":

in the field of welding:

- an inverter welding power source with the adaptive control of the pulsed arc welding process in shielding gases;

in the field of metal working:

- a technology of depositing nanophase coatings of intermetalide titanium-aluminum nitrides stabilized by silicon for metalworking tools;

- a technology of manufacturing diamond-containing materials of segment crowns up to 300 mm in diameter, intended for the processing of building materials and rocks;

- a technology of manufacturing replaceable plates from superhard composite materials on the basis of a cubic boron nitride and refractory compounds for mechanical processing of products made of cast iron and steel.

The unique microfertilizer "Nanoplant Co, Mn, Cu, Fe" based on micronutrient nanoparticles was developed within the SSTP "Industrial Biotechnologies", which is superior in efficiency to fertilizers based on traditional compounds of trace elements with a much lower application dose.

A technology of a heart transplantation for the patients with a terminal heart failure was developed, and in 2014 more than 150 transplantations were implemented within the SSTP “New Technologies of Diagnostics, Treatment and Prevention”.

You can single out the development and the manufacture of the aortic stentgraft system for endoprosthetics of thoracic aortic aneurysms for the operations with artificial circulation. The cost of a unit of the developed product is 1.5 thousand USD. The import analogue costs 12-15 thousand USD.

The technology "Intardard-3-TV" was developed, which enables to organize the transfer of the information about the patients' hearts via the Internet or mobile communication to the consulting center for the automated diagnosis and ECG-conclusion.

Fludarabel drug has been developed within the SSTP "Pharmaceutical Substances and Medicines". It has no analogues in Belarus and the CIS countries. According to the main indicators, it corresponds to the best world analogue, the fludar preparation (manufactured by the company "Schering AG", Germany), but 1.5 times cheaper, and surpassed by its pharmaceutical purity. Fludarabel belongs to the groups of anticancer drugs.

A laser optic-immersion system for the formation of microstructures and nanostructures has been developed within the SSTP “Optiel”. It has no analogues in the world market of high-tech products. It is intended to be used as part of multichannel laser image generators during the formation of submicron topological structures on silicon wafers.

A new photocurable orientant with the use of a photosensitive polymer has been developed and introduced into the production, with the help of which the technological process of obtaining wide-temperature liquid crystal devices has been improved within the SSTP "Chemical Technologies and Production".

The following have been developed within the framework of the SSTP "Agro Industrial Complex":

- an excavator-bunker with a laser inclinometer ETC-203;

- a technology for obtaining new probiotic microorganisms possessing a set of valuable biomedical properties for the production of bacon concentrates;

- a system for managing the processes of milk production, working on a "just-in-time" principle.

A scout surveillance device with a night channel with a gating in the range and a television microdisplay was developed within the SSTP "Radioelectronics 2".

The generalized efficiency factor for 2011-2015 was 53.67, for the SSTP it was 8.1, for RSTP it was 13.36 and for scientific provision of SP it was 1.66.

It should be noted that 17 scientific and technical programs aimed at developing products using technologies and industries related to the fifth and sixth technological structures were formed for the period 2016-2020.

New tasks aimed at developing advanced technologies and new types of science-intensive and high-tech products based on their own raw material and material and technical base and the organization of its serial production and transition to the fifth and sixth technological structures were included in the SSTP of a new cycle as priority ones.

The State Program of Innovative Development of the Republic of Belarus for 2016-2020 was approved by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Belarus of 31 January 2017, no. 31 (hereinafter the State Program). The program includes 75 projects for the creation of new industries that are critical for the innovative development of Belarus, in the fields of engineering, electronics, construction, petrochemistry, medicine and pharmacy, energy, transport and agriculture. In 2016, within the State Program, 74 projects were implemented by 17 customers.

For 2016:

- 700 million USD of foreign investments were attracted for the implementation of projects;

- objects on eight projects were commissioned;

- 8 projects reached the projected capacity;

- the volume of production of innovative products created as a result of the implementation of new and rolling projects exceeded  156.1 million USD, including the volume of products for export, which is more than 136.6 million USD;

- the amount of the added value created as a result of the implementation of new and rolling projects amounted to 30.9 million USD;

- the share of exports of high-tech and science-intensive products in the total volume of exports of goods and services amounted to 32.4%;

- 1430 workplaces were created and (or) modernized.

It is intended to concentrate efforts on the formation and development of the following high-tech sectors of the national economy during the implementation of the program in 2016-2020:

- the industry of information and communication and aerospace technologies;

- atomic and renewable energy;

- bioindustry and nanoindustry;

- pharmaceutical industry;

- instrument making and electronic industry.

75 innovative projects in the field of energy, microelectronics, machine building, metallurgy, medicine, pharmacy and medical technology, chemical technologies and petrochemistry, agriculture, transport, etc. have been already included in the state program. The technologies of the fifth and sixth technological structures are based on 30 innovative projects. The volume of financing for the implementation of these projects is 72.0% of the total amount of the financing of the State Program. In general, the following projects are the largest among the innovative projects included in the program:

- the construction of the Belarusian nuclear power plant. This will create a new energy area for the Republic of Belarus. The station is built according to the newest Russian technologies, which are leading today in the world market;

- the organization of the assembly of cars in the JSC "BELJI". The project involves the construction of the first plant in the Republic of Belarus for the CKD assembly of cars (CKD assembly of car kits). The project envisages the use of the modern production and control technologies;

- the construction of the plant for the production of sheet metal and tinplate. White tin with a thickness of 0.11-0.5 mm (tin is produced with a thickness of up to 0.18 mm in the CIS), the production of the  products essentially new for the Republic of Belarus, the CIS countries and near abroad, will be created. The production will be organized on the equipment of the world's leading companies.

It should be noted that the high-tech projects of the program are less large-scale, but highly effective and with a small financial investment, they give a significant increase in economic indicators.

The main indicators of the innovative development of the Republic of Belarus are "the specific weight of the shipped innovative products in the total volume of shipped products of industrial organizations" (hereinafter referred to as the specific weight of the shipped innovative products) and "the share of exports of high-tech and science-intensive products in the total volume of exports of goods and services" (hereinafter the share of exports of high-tech and science-intensive products).

The value of such indicator as the share of shipped innovative products for 2016 is 15.0%. The share of the export of high-tech and science-intensive products is projected at the level of 33%.

The Republic constantly improves the regulatory legal framework aimed at intensifying innovative development. In 2016, the State Committee on Science and Technology was working on the preparation of more than 50 projects in the field of scientific, technical and innovation activities, as well as protection of rights to intellectual property. It was accepted and published in 2016:

- 6 laws of the Republic of Belarus;

- 1 international treaty;

- 3 edicts of the President of the Republic of Belarus;

- 7 enactments of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus.

Thus, the Belarusian Innovation Fund (the BIF) was granted the right to the share holding in the joint venture financing of venture projects with the OJSC “Russian Venture Company” on the basis of a joint activity agreement by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Belarus of June 15, 2016 no. 223.

Another important area of innovative development is the creation of an appropriate innovative infrastructure. There is a network of subjects of the innovation infrastructure in the Republic. It includes 10 scientific and technological parks, 7 technology transfer centers, one innovation fund and one venture fund.

The results of the activities of these entities over the past years are significant. So, the number of jobs and the volume of production of innovative products almost doubled by the residents only in technological parks in 2012-2015.

The country is going to further develop this area. By 2020, it is expected to open seven more subjects of the innovation infrastructure.

The innovative development of the Republic of Belarus is largely based on the achievements of the scientific and technological progress, and it is impossible without the wide dissemination and the application of the information containing the information on scientific and technological activities and its results, which implies the availability of this information, and it also determines the requirements for its relevance and reliability.

At the moment, the works on the formation and implementation of a new List of Scientific Research and Developments for the development of the SSSTI for 2016-2018 and for the future until 2020 has been implemented.

Currently, the work to further integrate the BASNET academic network into the regional electronic infrastructure of the all-European GEANT scientific and educational network, the introduction of the authentication technology and the user authorization in educational networks and the creation of a wireless virtual network infrastructure of corporate networks of the educational establishment within the development of the telecommunications infrastructure are underway.

There are activities for developing and implementing a number of automated information systems: a bibliometric assessment of the scientific productivity and the effectiveness of research organizations and scientists; the abstracting of multilingual electronic arrays of scientific and technical publications in agrarian sciences; the complex assessment of works of fine art on the basis of scientific and technical data bases; the protection of the information of electronic filing of the applications for industrial property in the National Center for Intellectual Property.

It is scheduled to create a national basic element of the information infrastructure of the innovation activity of the distributed information system (information system) of the CIS and other information resources (information resources).There were works on the preparation and publication of scientific, technical and scientific-methodical literature in order to meet the needs of government agencies, legal entities and individuals in analytical information on products and services provided in the scientific, scientific, technical and innovation fields in 2016.

At the same time, there are unsolved problems.

In recent years, it has not been possible to change a number of negative trends in the field of the reproduction of human resources. The statistics show that the number of scientists in the Republic decreased by more than 5 thousand people (by 16.2%) during the last five-year period. In 2015 the number of scientists fell by more than 1000 people (by 3.9%).

The reduction in the number of scientific workers of the highest qualification is determined primarily by the nature of their age structure.

Thus, in 2015 36.1% of researchers with a Ph.D. degree were individuals aged 60 and older (it was 32.6% in 2011). It was 79.6% with a Ph.D. (it was 69 ,4% in 2011).

At the same time, the dynamics of the age structure of persons studying in postgraduate and post-doctoral studies is characterized by positive tendencies.

First, there has been an increase in the proportion of students under the age of 24 since 2014: from 7.5% in 2013 to 11.7% in 2015. Secondly, there has been a stabilization in the proportion of students in age to 30 years at the level of about 60% since 2014. Thus, we can make a conclusion about the tendencies of overcoming the situation of the increase in the proportion of students of older ages in 2011-2013.

The age structure of persons studying in the doctoral system is characterized by the predominance of age groups under 50. The share of this group for 2015 increased by 4% and it was 76.4%, which corresponds to the level of 2012-2013. At the same time, about one-third of the total number of students were persons under 40.  

The current system of the remuneration of scientific workers makes it possible to differentiate the payment of their labor depending on the availability of the academic degree and title. Thus, the law provides for the possibility of annually establishing monthly surcharges for academic degrees and titles in the amount of a multiple rate of the first class.

One of the currently used mechanisms of material incentives for scientific workers is the development of a system of scholarships and grants.

In order to stimulate the development of the creative initiative of young scientists, up to 100 scholarships of the President of the Republic of Belarus are awarded to talented young scientists working in organizations that carry out scientific research and development in the field of natural, technical, social and human sciences.

It was also established that the leaders and specialists of the organizations of science, education, healthcare and culture who made a significant contribution to the development of the relevant industry and innovative projects participating in the researches of priority importance for the implementation of state programs and the most important areas of the social and economic development of the Republic of Belarus are annually granted up to 30 grants of the President of the Republic of Belarus for each of these areas.

One of the most important areas of the innovation policy of the Republic of Belarus is the development of international cooperation in the scientific, scientific and technical fields. The ability to exchange achievements in the field of scientific and technological progress is regarded as by most countries no less than the ability to generate them.

Belarus actively carries out scientific and technical cooperation with more than 40 countries of the world. It is expected to establish a closer cooperation with 24 more countries.

Ten meetings of intergovernmental commissions for scientific and technical cooperation with the colleagues from St. Petersburg, Azerbaijan, Hungary, India, Iran, Mongolia, Pakistan, Serbia, Ukraine, as well as Cuba were organized and held only in 2016. There were the meetings with the representatives of business and diplomatic circles of Korea, China, Lithuania, Iran, Turkey, the Association of European Businesses, UNECE, etc.

The results of the done work are:

- the implementation of joint projects with Russia, China, Lithuania, Latvia, Serbia, India, Kazakhstan and Vietnam;

- the extension of the area of the countries with which the scientific and technical cooperation was organized;

- the holding of the meetings with the commissions for the scientific-technical cooperation with Hungary, Cuba, Mongolia and Azerbaijan for the first time;

- the conclusion of the new international agreements with Georgia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, as well as Shanghai (as the Chinese city of the central submission);

- the intensification of the cooperation in the field of science, technology and innovation with the countries possessing a high innovative potential, such as Germany, Korea, Italy, Japan and Switzerland.

Eight scientific and technical programs of the Union State are being implemented, including "Development of Space and Ground-Based Means for Providing Consumers of Russia and Belarus with information of Remote Sensing of the Earth" ("Monitoring SG"), "Research and Development of High-Performance Information and Computing Technologies for Increasing and Effective Use of the Resource Potential of the Hydrocarbon Raw Material of the Union State "(SKIF-Nedra), "Development of the New Generation of Electronic Components for Control and Safety Systems ("Autoelectronics"), "Development of the Critical Standard Technologies for Designing and Manufacturing Products of Nanostructured Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Instruments and Systems Based on Them and the Equipment for their Production and Testing" (Luch), etc.

Draft concepts of 34 new union programs are being developed. The most significant of them are "Development of Technologies, Materials and Equipment for Production by Methods of Additive Technologies" ("Additivity"); "Development of Innovative Gene Geographic and Genomic Technologies for Identifying Personal and Individual Characteristics of a Person on the Basis of Studying the Gene Pools of the Regions of the Union State" ("DNA Identification"); "Development of Manufacturing Technologies for Mobile Digital Optic-Electronic Locators of a New Generation for Advanced Information Measuring Systems of Dual Purpose" ("Prism"); "Development of Promising Means for Automated Genetic Analysis" ("Gene Automatics").

Belarusian and European experts started the work on the preparation of the second "Review of Innovative Development of the Republic of Belarus". The participation of Belarusian scientists in the implementation of projects under Horizon 2020 Union State Program extended: at present, Belarusian scientists are already participating in 23 projects.

The contracts for the implementation of two scientific and innovative projects were signed in 2016. For example, the UE ADANI participates in the development and testing of a non-intrusive scanner with a high resolution and unique properties within MESMERISE project. It will enable to detect chemicals and objects hidden inside the human body and detect other anomalies with the size of 100 g.

It is necessary to provide market mechanisms with the venture capital, when creating them for the implementation of developments. The Russian-Belarusian Venture Investment Fund was created for the first time for this purpose. The total amount of investments is 1.4 billion Russian rubles (more than 20 million USD). The creation of such funds with China and other countries is being discussed.

The creation of such funds corresponds to the experience of the advanced countries, where the venture industry is one of the main components of the successful innovation development. Thus, the incomes of enterprises that received these investments make up almost 18% of GDP in the USA with the volume of venture investments 0.2% of GDP.

The venture investment fund organized jointly with the Russian Federation will enable:

- to create a new mechanism for the formation of the venture industry in order to develop the innovative entrepreneurship;

- to use the opportunities of the Russian venture company for bringing shares of Belarusian enterprises to the stock market of Russia and other countries to attract financial resources;

- Belarusian specialists to gain an experience in the field of market venture investments and valuation of venture projects.

The interaction of the regions of Belarus and Russia for a long time plays the role of the factor that makes a significant contribution to the positive dynamics of the development of economic relations and the growth of the trade between Russia and Belarus.

This year it is scheduled to hold a joint meeting of the boards of the State Committee on Science and Technology and the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia, the 9th meeting of the Belarusian-Russian Commission for Scientific and Technical Cooperation, the 4th Forum of the Regions of Belarus and Russia, the Day of Belarusian Science in Moscow, etc.

Recently the representatives of business and financial structures of Belarus and Russia pay more and more attention to the cooperation between the two countries, as well as scientific and technical programs of the Union State and new projects of the Interstate Program for Innovative Cooperation of the CIS member states for 2016-2020.

Priority areas of the scientific, technical and innovative cooperation for the period 2015-2017 were also formed and extended within the Union State. This is a build-up of the potential in the field of space technology, the creation of high-performance systems and information processing technologies for various industries, nanomaterials and nanotechnology, genetic engineering and biotechnology.

The understanding of the need for further integration in the scientific, technical and innovation areas, taking into account the changing world and the conditions for the development of the Union State, is common for our states.

This is a guarantee of the success of our joint programs, it provides a real opportunity to enter the international level and to ensure the competitiveness of innovation developments and results of the research work and fundamental researches, as well as the expansion of the list of integration mechanisms, regional and public-private interaction.

The world keeps changing, and today the knowledge about the developments and achievements of Belarusian colleagues of many Russian companies and research organizations is not enough. That’s why the development of the interstate system of the scientific-technical information becomes topical more than ever. 

We will be able to provide the creation of the common scientific space for the efficient exchange of scientific-technical information using this resource.

Summing up, we can say that the most important area of the investment is innovation, that is, the creation of new high-tech products that are competitive in the world market. In addition, it is necessary to concentrate the scientific and technical potential of our countries on breakthrough scientific research and development and to ensure their practical implementation in production for this.